Simple Overview of Proteins

Posted on April 20, 2021  Comments (0)

This webcasts provides a good, very simple, overview of proteins.

Learn more about proteins: How Lysozyme Protein in Our Tear-Drops Kill BacteriaMolecular Motor ProteinsFold.it, the Protein Folding Game

Huge Proposed Increases in USA Government Science and Engineering Support

Posted on April 3, 2021  Comments (0)

The Biden administration has proposed greatly increasing USA government spending on science and engineering. They are proposing levels last seen in the 1960s when the USA was most committed to science and engineering spending (as most visibly seen in support for NASA).

Advance U.S. leadership in critical technologies and upgrade America’s research infrastructure. U.S. leadership in new technologies—from artificial intelligence to biotechnology to computing—is critical to both our future economic competitiveness and our national security. Based on bipartisan proposals, President Biden is calling on Congress to invest $50 billion in the National Science Foundation (NSF), creating a technology directorate that will collaborate with and build on existing programs across the government. It will focus on fields like semiconductors and advanced computing, advanced communications technology, advanced energy technologies, and biotechnology. He also is calling on Congress to provide $30 billion in additional funding for R&D that spurs innovation and job creation, including in rural areas. His plan also will invest $40 billion in upgrading research infrastructure in laboratories across the country, including brick-and-mortar facilities and computing capabilities and networks. These funds would be allocated across the federal R&D agencies, including at the Department of Energy. Half of those funds will be reserved for Historically Black College and Universities (HBCUs) and other Minority Serving Institutions, including the creation of a new national lab focused on climate that will be affiliated with an HBCU.

Establish the United States as a leader in climate science, innovation, and R&D. The President is calling on Congress to invest $35 billion in the full range of solutions needed to achieve technology breakthroughs that address the climate crisis and position America as the global leader in clean energy technology and clean energy jobs. This includes launching ARPA-C to develop new methods for reducing emissions and building climate resilience, as well as expanding across-the-board funding for climate research. In addition to a $5 billion increase in funding for other climate-focused research, his plan will invest $15 billion in demonstration projects for climate R&D priorities, including utility-scale energy storage, carbon capture and storage, hydrogen, advanced nuclear, rare earth element separations, floating offshore wind, biofuel/bioproducts, quantum computing, and electric vehicles, as well as strengthening U.S. technological leadership in these areas in global markets.

Eliminate racial and gender inequities in research and development and science, technology, engineering, and math. Discrimination leads to less innovation: one study found that innovation in the United States will quadruple if women, people of color, and children from low-income families invented at the rate of groups who are not held back by discrimination and structural barriers. Persistent inequities in access to R&D dollars and to careers in innovation industries prevents the U.S. economy from reaching its full potential. President Biden is calling on Congress to make a $10 billion R&D investment at HBCUs and other MSIs. He also is calling on Congress to invest $15 billion in creating up to 200 centers of excellence that serve as research incubators at HBCUs and other MSIs to provide graduate fellowships and other opportunities for underserved populations, including through pre-college programs.

This text is from The White House Infrastructure Plan (The American Jobs Plan). Likely this link will stop working in several years (once a new administration takes over.
photo of NASA's Mars Rover: Curiosity
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Choosing Between Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering

Posted on February 17, 2021  Comments (0)

Chemical engineering and bioengineering, also called biomedical engineering, overlap in some areas because they both create new technology and innovations for the healthcare industry. However, the two disciplines are very different. Here is a comparison of the two careers to help you choose the one that would be best for you.

What Does a Chemical Engineer Do?

A chemical engineer uses science to find solutions to problems, such as manufacturing issues for a food company. They can also work for pharmaceutical, chemical, science, petroleum, coal, oil, gas, trade, manufacturing and other companies.

They usually work in a laboratory or office setting. Sometimes they have to work in an industrial or chemical plant. Some chemical engineers work in the field, such as a refinery. The daily tasks of a chemical engineer can vary, but they usually include research and testing. They may develop new chemicals products, or they may create and test equipment.

photo of a chemical engineering lab setup

Sometimes chemical engineers can solve important problems that affect different aspects of people’s lives. For example, Líney Árnadóttir is a chemical engineering associate professor who studies chemical processes on different surfaces to try to uncover how and why materials degrade.

Árnadóttir and other researchers used supercomputers to study chloride’s role in corrosion. Chemical engineers sometimes use technology, such as the supercomputers at the San Diego Supercomputer Center and the Texas Advanced Computing Center, to do their work and solve problems. By understanding how chloride affects materials like steel, the researchers can help companies, manufacturers and the environment deal with corrosion better.

What Is Bioengineering?

Bioengineering is a field that uses engineering to study and design biomedical technology and systems. A bioengineer usually works in healthcare. They frequently make new medical devices, equipment, software, computer systems and other products to help people.

Bioengineers can create new laboratory machines to diagnose medical problems or artificial organs to replace the ones in a person. It is possible for a bioengineer to find work in a laboratory, research center, manufacturing facility, hospital or university. Some bioengineers work for large companies and help them develop new products.

Every time you go to a doctor’s office or hospital you are seeing examples of bioengineering. When you need an MRI or CT scan, you are using technology built by bioengineers. If you need a hip replacement or a new knee, you are also benefiting from the designs created by bioengineers.

What Type of Qualifications Does Each Require?

In addition to studying engineering and chemistry, a chemical engineer must study math, biology and physics. As a student, you may have to study science topics like engineering computation or chemical engineering thermodynamics. A strong science and math background is important for becoming a chemical engineer. Many pursue a master’s degree after their bachelor’s degree.

A chemical engineer has to be a good problem solver. They have to look at a process or design and figure out how to make it work. They also have to fix it and figure out why it is not working when problems develop. Creativity is essential for this career.

A bioengineer must study engineering, biology and medical science. Additional topics studied by bioengineers include: genetics, computational biology and cell biology. Bioengineers will also must study math and other subjects during college. Many choose to pursue a master’s in biomedical engineering after earning their bachelor’s.

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Creating Low-cost Construction Materials Using Recycled Plastic Waste

Posted on February 12, 2021  Comments (0)

Nzambi Matee is a materials engineer and head of Gjenge Makers (in Kenya), which produces sustainable low-cost construction materials made of recycled plastic waste and sand. For her work, Nzambi Matee was recently named a Young Champions of the Earth by the United Nations Environment Programme.

Building blocks for a greener Nairobi

Through trial and error, she and her team learned that some plastics bind together better than others. Her project was given a boost when Matee won a scholarship to attend a social entrepreneurship training programme in the United States of America. With her paver samples packed in her luggage, she used the material labs in the University of Colorado Boulder to further test and refine the ratios of sand to plastic.

It is wonderful to see young people using an understanding of engineering to find ways to improve the world. Taking waste plastic and creating usable products will help reduce pollution and create a better world. We need quite a bit of effort to deal with plastic waste, so I look forward to learning about many more ideas turned into practical solutions in the real world.

Related: Cleaning Up the Plastic Pollution in Our OceansPedal Powered Washing MachineProtecting Cows with Lion LightsDrone Deliveries to Hospitals in Rwanda

I Just Finished Statistics for Experimenters and I Cannot Praise it Enough

Posted on April 15, 2020  Comments (1)

Guest post by Michael Betancourt.

I just finished Box, Hunter, and Hunter (Statistics for Experimenters) and I cannot praise it enough. There were multiple passages where I literally giggled. In fact I may have been a bit too enthusiastic about tagging quotes beyond “all models are wrong but some are useful” that I can’t share them all.

photo of Statistics for Experimenters with many blue bookmarks shown

I wish someone had shared this with me when I was first learning statistics instead of the usual statistics textbooks that treat model development as an irrelevant detail. So many of the elements that make this book are extremely relevant to statistics today. Some examples:

  • The perspective of learning from data only through the lens of the statistical model. The emphasis on sequential modeling, using previous fits to direct better models, and sequential experiments, using past fits to direct better targeted experiments.
  • The fixation on checking model assumptions, especially with interpretable visual diagnostics that capture not only residuals but also meaningful scales of deviation. Proto visual predictive checks as I use them today.
  • The distinction between empirical models and mechanistic models, and the treatment of empirical linear models as Taylor expansions of mechanistic models with covariates as _deviations_ around some nominal value. Those who have taken my course know how important I think this is.
  • The emphasis that every model, even mechanistic models, are approximations and should be treated as such.
  • The reframing of frequentist statistical tests as measures of signal to noise ratios.
  • The importance of process drift and autocorrelation in data when experimental configurations are not or cannot be arbitrarily randomized.
  • The diversity of examples and exercises using real data from real applications with detailed contexts, including units everywhere.

Really the only reason why I wouldn’t recommend this as an absolute must read is that the focus on linear models and use of frequentist methods does limit the relevance of the text to contemporary Bayesian applications a bit.

Texts like these make me even more frustrated by the desire to frame movements like data science as revolutions that give people the justification to ignore the accumulated knowledge of applied statisticians.

Academic statistics has no doubt largely withdrawn into theory with increasingly smaller overlap with applications, but there is so much relevant wisdom in older applied statistics texts like these that doesn’t need to be rediscovered just reframed in a contemporary context.

Oh, I forgot perhaps the best part! BHH continuously emphasizes the importance of working with domain experts in the design and through the entire analysis with lots of anecdotal examples demonstrating how powerful that collaboration can be.

I felt so much less alone every time they talked about experimental designs not being implemented properly andthe subtle effects that can have in the data, and serious effects in the resulting inferences, if not taken into account.

Michael Betancourt, PhD, Applied Statistician – long story short, I am a once and future physicist currently masquerading as a statistician in order to expose the secrets of inference that statisticians have long kept from scientists. More seriously, my research focuses on the development of robust statistical workflows, computational tools, and pedagogical resources that bridge statistical theory and practice and enable scientists to make the most out of their data.
Twitter: @betanalpha
Website: betanalpha
Patreon: Michael Betancourt

Related: Statistics for Experimenters, Second EditionStatistics for Experimenters in SpanishStatistics for Experimenters ReviewCorrelation is Not Causation

Molecular Motor Proteins

Posted on January 27, 2020  Comments (1)

Webcast on amazing processes inside cells by Ron Vale.

Molecular motor proteins are fascinating enzymes that power much of the movement performed by living organisms. The webcast provides an overview of the motors that move along cytoskeletal tracks (kinesin and dynein which move along microtubules and myosin which moves along actin). The talk first describes the broad spectrum of biological roles that kinesin, dynein and myosin play in cells. The talk then discusses how these nanoscale proteins convert energy from ATP hydrolysis into unidirectional motion and force production, and compares common principles of kinesin and myosin. The talk concludes by discussing the role of motor proteins in disease and how drugs that modulate motor protein activity can treat human disease.

Ron Vale is a Professor of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology at the University of California, San Francisco and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. He is also the founder of the iBiology project.

Related: Animations of Motor Proteins Moving Material Inside CellsScience Explained: How Cells React to Invading VirusesLooking Inside Living Cells

Popular Posts on the Curious Cat Science and Engineering Blog in the Last Decade

Posted on January 19, 2020  Comments (1)

These were the most popular (by number of page views) posts on our blog in the last decade.

photo of John Hunter with snow covered mountain peaks in the background

John Hunter, Olympic National Park (where the mountain peaks are colder and covered in snow)

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Backyard Wildlife: Squirrel Gathering Leaves for Its Nest

Posted on May 22, 2019  Comments (5)

I saw this squirrel gathering leaves for its nest in its mouth and then climbing a tree in my backyard. It repeated this many times all morning. I saw it doing so at least 5 times and likely it did so many times when I did not see it.

See more backyard wildlife posts on the Curious Cat Science Blog

Related: Squirrel Eating Holly BerriesBackyard Wildlife: Red-tailed HawkBackyard Wildlife: Family of Raccoons

Regeneron High School Science Talent Search 2019

Posted on April 19, 2019  Comments (1)

$3.1 million in prizes was awarded through the Regeneron Science Talent Search 2019, including $2,000 to each of the top 300 scholars and their schools. The top award was for $250,000. If you want to watch the video without knowing the winner, watch it before reading the rest of this post.

Every year the accomplishments of high school students provide amazing hope for the future. I am glad for the organizations that highlight the efforts of these students and provide awards for a few of the most amazing accomplishments. The top 40 students all get at least $25,000 (with the top 10 getting more).

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Appropriate Technology: a Microscope and Centrifuge for Under $1

Posted on March 24, 2019  Comments (1)

Malaria is estimated to have killed more than half the people that have ever lived. And it continues to kill millions. One big challenge is diagnosing malaria is difficult (those infected have flu like symptoms).

The video shows two great appropriate technology solutions to help diagnose malaria and save millions of lives. Manu Prakash from Stanford talks about 2 of his labs’ inventions the Foldscope and the Paperfuge. Combined these cost only 68 cents and they can be used to diagnose Malaria. Both of these are examples not only of simple, brilliant design, but of how engineering is used to make a positive dent in the world.

Read more about the Paperfuge: an ultra-low cost, hand-powered centrifuge inspired by the mechanics of a whirligig toy (open access paper).

This solution also shows the huge benefit people everywhere have gained when immigrants can take their skills and desires to institutions like Stanford to create solutions that greatly benefit the world. This powerful force has been creating huge benefits that we all have enjoyed for decades.

Related: Appropriate Technology and Focus on Improving Lives at MIT (2014)$1 Device To Give Throat Cancer Patients Their Voice Again (2016)Video showing malaria breaking into cell (2011)Engineering: Cellphone Microscope (2009)One Scientists 20 Year Effort to Defeat Dengue Fever (2012)

Scientists Watch Single Cell Organisms Evolve Multicellular Trait in Response to Predation

Posted on February 24, 2019  Comments (2)

The scientists used the ciliate predator Paramecium tetraurelia to select for the de novo evolution of multicellularity in outcrossed populations of C. reinhardtii. They show that multicellular life cycles that evolved were passed on to future generations (the change was heritable). The evolved multicellular life cycles are stable over thousands of asexual generations in the absence of predators. Because C. reinhardtii has no multicellular ancestors, these experiments represent a novel origin of multicellularity.

De novo origins of multicellularity in response to predation

Here we show that de novo origins of simple multicellularity can evolve in response to predation. We subjected outcrossed populations of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to selection by the filter-feeding predator Paramecium tetraurelia. Two of five experimental populations evolved multicellular structures not observed in unselected control populations within ~750 asexual generations.

The control populations remained unicellular. The populations subjected to predation evolved in different ways including one that formed stereotypic eight-celled clusters (Fig. 1A), with an apparent unicellular and tetrad life stage.

electron microscope images of multicellular colonies from evolved populations

Scanning electron micrographs of representative multicellular colonies from evolved populations. (A) Shows an amorphous cluster from population B2. Cell number varies greatly between clusters in this clone and between clones in this population. (B) Shows an eight-celled cluster from population B5. Octads were frequently observed in both populations.

an external membrane is visible around both evolved multicellular colonies, indicating that they formed clonally via repeated cell division within the cluster, rather than via aggregation.

The article also provides details on the scientific inquiry process where theory meets practical realities of observation. I think these ideas are very important and we often gloss over such details. This article was shared as an open access article and is written so that those who are interested in science but are not scientists can understand, which is a valuable. The research was funded by USA National Science Foundation, the John Templeton Foundation, the NASA Astrobiology Institute, a NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellowship and a Packard Foundation Fellowship. And the researchers work at public and private universities. Such research should all be published in an open access manner.

Related: The Amazing Reality of Genes and The History of Scientific InquiryParasite Evolved from Cnidarians (Jellyfish etc.)Why Don’t All Ant Species Replace Queens in the Colony, Since Some DoScientific Inquiry Leads to Using Fluoride for Healthy TeethMechanical Gears Found in Jumping Insects